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  • DHS Library Media Center: Research Paper Guide

    Citation Guide

    Why cite?

    When you cite a source, you show how your voice enters into an ongoing intellectual conversation, that you respect other thinkers, and that you are adding something new to the conversation. Further, working with sources can inspire your own ideas and enrich them, and your citation of these sources is the visible trace of that debt. 

    What must I cite?
    Anything you write or create that uses or refers to the ideas of another person, including:
    • direct quotations
    • paraphrasing of passages
    • indebtedness to another person for an idea
    • use of another student's work
    • use of your own previous work
     
    You do not need to cite common knowledge. For example, you do not need to cite the fact that Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States, but you would need to cite your source for the number of slaves he inherited from his father.
    See the “ACADEMIC INTEGRITY” section of the Dartmouth High School Student Handbook for more information.
    What is involved in citing resources correctly?
    In most cases, two parts are needed to cite a source correctly:
    1. References [“parentheticals”] to the source within the text of your paper
      Whenever you refer to the work of another person, you must indicate within the text where you got the information. Depending on the citation style you use, this indication within the text may take the form of a footnote [e.g. ¹] or notation within parentheses e.g. (Walker 21). The in-text citation is a marker that points the reader to the complete citation for the source. It should always be preceded by a "signal phrase" -- wherein you refer to the source and give context to the source: According to school library expert Laurie Dias-Mitchell: "School libraries need enough staff and resources in order to provide high quality services to all students and staff" (Dias-Mitchell, par. 3).
    2. A list of works used in your paper
      The final page of your paper is usually a list of resources you cited or consulted. The name of this list varies depending on the citation style you use.
    Which citation style should I use?
    Use the style recommended by your teacher; if none is recommended, choose one of the styles below based on the discipline for your paper, or see if there is a departmental recommendation.
    The main styles of citations used at Dartmouth High School are:
    • MLA    (Modern Language Association) for literature, arts, and humanities
    • APA    (American Psychological Association) for the sciences and social sciences

    Free Works Cited Generators:
    EasyBib 
    Choose which style you need your works cited to be in and then fill in the blanks from there. EasyBib will put your sources into the correct format. 

    BibMe
    This a fully automatic bibliography maker that auto-fills. It's the easiest way to build a works cited page. And it's FREE.


    KnightCite
    KnightCite is FREE and accommodates the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

    NoodleTools 
    NoodleTools is the oldest works cited generator. It is an excellent tool, but be careful to use "NoodleBib MLA Starter" or "NoodleBib Express." The others may charge you a fee. 

    Son of Citation Machine 
    Simply select the style you need (MLA), pick the source type (i.e. book) and continue to fill in the blanks. Son of Citation Machine will generate a correctly formatted works-cited in a matter of seconds. 

    WorksCited4U 
    Select the style you want and follow the instructions. This site is very easy to use and very reliable.
     
    MLA Style, 7th Edition
     
     
    Developed by the Modern Language Association, this style is most widely used for research papers in the humanities.
    Each citation consists of two parts: the parenthetical reference, which provides brief identifying information within the text, and the works cited list, which provides full bibliographic information.

    How to Format Parenthetical References
    (For more detailed information see MLA Handbook Section 6)
    In MLA, in-text citations are called parenthetical references. They use the author's last name followed by the page number referenced in the work. The reference is placed in parentheses usually at the end of the sentence before the period.
    (Kurasawa 323).

    Each source in the Works Cited list at the end of the paper corresponds to a parenthetical reference in the text.
    If the author's name is mentioned in the narrative, only the page number need appear in the parentheses.
    Kurasawa (323) found that ….

    Group or corporate authors. Use full name of group or a shortened form.
    (Modern Language Association 115)
    (MLA 115)

    Unknown Author. Use a few words of the title.
    ("Recent innovations" 231)

    Two or three authors. Use the last names of each.
    (AuthorA, AuthorB, and AuthorC 323)

    More than three authors. Give all the authors' last names or just use the first and "et al" for the rest. In any case, use the same form as the entry in your Works Cited list.
    (Bia, Pedreno, Small, Finch, Patterson 161)
    (Bia et al. 161)

    If the Works Cited list contains two or more authors with the same surname. In the parenthetical reference, include the first initial.
    (A. DeCarrera 213)

    If the initial is also the same, use the whole first name.
    (Annette DeCarrera 213)

    In a parenthetical reference to one of two or more works by the same author, put a comma after the author's name and add the title of the work [if brief] or a shortened version and the relevant page reference.
    (Mead, Culture 55)
     
    If the reference is to an exact quotation, the author and page number appear in parentheses after the quote:
    It may be true that "the attitude of the observer is of primary importance" (Robertson 136).

    For exact quotations from sources without page numbers
    , use paragraph numbers, if available. If the work does not have page numbers or paragraph numbers, include in the text the name of the person that begins the corresponding entry in the works cited list, instead of using a parenthetical reference. For more information see MLA Handbook sections 6.4.1 and 6.4.2.
    (Smith, par. 17) or (Smith, pars. 17-18)
    As Smith points out ....

    Citations taken from a secondary source should generally be avoided; consult the original work whenever possible. If only an indirect source is available, put the abbreviation qtd. in (quoted in) before the indirect source in the parenthetical reference and include the indirect source in the Works Cited. (MLA Style, sec. 6.4.7)
    parenthetical reference
    In a May 1800 letter to Watt, Creighton wrote, "The excellent Satanism reflects immortal honour on theClub" (qtd. in Hunt and Jacob 493).

    ... entry in works cited list should look like this:
    Hunt, Lynn, and Margaret Jacob. "The Affective Revolution in 1790s Britain." Eighteenth-Century 
           Studies
     34.4 (2001): 491-521. Print.

    How to Format the Works Cited List
    Books   REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.

    (MLA Handbook, sec. 5.5)
    Single author
    Perle, George. Serial Composition and Atonality: an Introduction to the Music
           of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. 6th ed. Berkeley: University of
           California Press, 1991. Print.
    Two or more works by same author
    ---. Twelve-Tone Tonality. 2nd ed. Berkeley: 
          University of California Press, 1996. Print.
    Multiple authors
    Higonnet, Margaret R., and Joan Templeton, eds. Reconfigured Spheres:
           Feminist Explorations of Literary Space. Amherst: University of Massachusetts
           Press, 1994. Print.
    Edited Book
    Gibbons, Reginald, ed. The Poet's Work: 29 Masters of 20th Century Poetry
          on the Origins and Practice of their Art. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
           Print.
    Group or corporate author
    World Bank. Transition, The First Ten Years: Analysis and Lessons for
           Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington: World Bank,
           2002. Print.
    Chapter or essay in book
    Calvino, Italo. "Cybernetics and Ghosts." The Uses of Literature: Essays. Trans.
           Patrick Creagh. San Diego: Harcourt, 1982. 3-27. Print.
    Article from a reference book
    Loizou, Andros. "Theories of Justice: Rawls." Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics.
           Ed. Ruth Chadwick. Vol. 4. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998. Print.
     
    Note: for standard, familiar reference works, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, do not list the full publishing information, just the year of publication. If you are using more than one volume of a multi-volume work, give number of volumes (x vols.) before place of publication. If you are using only one volume, use the example above. For greater detail, see section 5.5.14 of the MLA Handbook.
     
    Articles      REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.

    (MLA Handbook, sec. 5.4 and 5.6.4)
    Article in a journal (one author)
    Wolff, Larry. "'The Boys are Pickpockets, and the Girl is a Prostitute': Gender and 
           Juvenile Criminality in Early Victorian England from Oliver Twist to London  
           Labour." New Literary History 27.2 (1996): 227-249. Print.
    Note: Provide issue numbers (if available) in addition to volume numbers, for all items in the Works Cited list, even if the volume pagination is continuous. See section 5.4.1 of MLA Handbook.
    Article in a journal (multiple authors)
    Millán-Zaibert, Elisabeth and Leo Zaibert. "El Análisis Filosófico." Cuadernos
          Hispanoamericanos
     627 (2002): 29-35. Print.
    Article in a popular magazine
    Lerner, Barbara. "America's Schools: Still Failing After All These Years." National    Review 15 Sep. 1997: 42+. Print.
    Note: use the + sign if the pages are not consecutive; 42-44 would be the correct way if this article ran on consecutive pages; do not give the volume and issue number, even if they are available.
    Article in a newspaper
    Kennedy, Louise. "Same Old Song." Boston Globe 9 March 2003, late ed.: N1+. 
          Print.
     
    Article from a
    full-text database
    Andreatta, Filippo. "Italy at a Crossroads: The Foreign Policy of a Medium Power
          after the End of Bipolarity." Daedalus 130.2 (2001): 45-65. Expanded    
         Academic ASAP
    . Web. 9 March 2009.
    Article from an e-journal collection
    Brooks, Gwendolyn. "Henry Dumas: Perceptiveness and Zeal." Black American
           Literature Forum
     22.2 (1988): 177. JSTOR. Web. 9 March 2009.
    Article from a free web e-journal
    Castle, Robert. "From Desperation to Salvation: Concealing and Revealing
           Nothing in History." Archipelago 6.3 (2003): n. pag. Web. 9 March 2009.
     
    Media    REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (MLA Handbook, sec. 5.7)
    Music Score
    Schoenberg, Arnold. A Survivor from Warsaw; For Narrator, Men's Chorus, and  
            Orchestra. Op. 46
    . Long Island City: Bomart Music Publications, 1949. 
            Print.
    Refer to section 5.6.2 for scores online and 5.7.1 for television and radio broadcasts of music.
    Sound Recording
    Bernstein, Leonard. Candide: Opera House Version, 1982. Orch. New York City
           Opera Chorus and Orchestra. Perf. Erie Mills, Joyce Castle, Maris  
           Clement, John Lankston, Jack Harrold, David Eisler, James Billings, Scott
           Reeve. Cond. John Mauceri. New York: New World Records,
          1986. CD.
    If citing a medium other than compact disc, indicate that medium after the date; e.g., audiocassette, LP, etc.
    Video Recording
    Like Water for Chocolate [Como agua para chocolate]. Screenplay by Laura
           Esquivel. Dir. Alfonso Arau. Perf. Lumi Cavazos, Marco Leonardi, Regina 
           Torne. 1992. Burbank, Calif.: Miramax Home
           Entertainment, 2000. DVD.
    Consult section 5.7.3 of the MLA Handbook for further information about citing films.
    Online Video
    "The L-Team." Dartmouth High School Library. YouTube. 2007. Web. 27 Aug. 
           2009.      
    Basic elements are in this order: "Segment Title." Director/Creator (if  
    available). Title of database or  Website. Year of publication. Format. Date of access. For more information see sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d.
    In the parenthetical reference, lead with the author name (if available) or title or beginning words of the title if author is not available. Put parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence in your text.
    Television
    "Frederick Douglass." Civil War Journal. Narr. Danny Glover. Dir. Craig Haffner.
             Arts and Entertainment Network. 6 April 1993. Television.
    Web/Online   REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (MLA Handbook, sec. 5.6)
    Web page
    Pilgrim, David. "The Brute Caricature." Jim CrowMuseum of Racist Memorabilia.
           FerrisState University. Nov. 2000. Web. 20 May 2009.
    If your teacher requires it, include the URL immediately following the date of access, a period, and a space. Enclose the URL in angle brackets (<>), and follow it with a period. For more details on citing works on the Web, see section 5.6 of the MLA Handbook.
    Blog Posting
    Kristoff, Nicholas. "How To Get Out in the Woods (and Survive the Bears!)". 
          Nicholas D. Kristoff:On the Ground. New York Times, 9 August 2009. Web.
          27 August 2009.
    For more information about citing works only on the Web, see section 5.6.2b of the MLA Handbook.
    Online Video
    "The L-Team." Dartmouth High School Library. YouTube. 2007. Web. 27 Aug. 
          2009.   
    Basic elements are in this order: "Segment Title." Director/Creator (if 
    available). Title of database or Website. Year of publication. Format. Date 
    of access. For more information see sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d.
    In the parenthetical reference, lead with the author name (if available) or title or beginning words of the title if author is not available. Put parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence in your text.
    Article from a free web e-journal
    Castle, Robert. "From Desperation to Salvation: Concealing and Revealing 
            Nothing in History." Archipelago 6.3 (2003): n. pag. Web. 9 March 2009.
    Article from a full-text database
    Andreatta, Filippo. "Italy at a Crossroads: The Foreign Policy of a Medium 
           Power after the End of Bipolarity." Daedalus 130.2: 45-65. Expanded
           Academic ASAP
    . Web. 9 March 2009.
    Article from an e-journal collection
    Brooks, Gwendolyn. "Henry Dumas: Perceptiveness and Zeal." Black American
           Literature Forum
     22.2 (1988): 177. JSTOR. Web. 9 March 2009.
    Government Information    
    (MLA Handbook, 5.5.20)
    See Citing Government Documents
    [automated fill-in form from Arizona State University Library]
    Unpublished    REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (MLA Handbook, sec. 5.7)
    Interview
    Payne, Harry C. Personal interview. [or "Telephone interview" or "E-Mail interview" as
            the case may be.] 22 May 1998.See section 5.7.7 of the MLA Handbook for  
            interviews in print or media. See 5.6.2b for interviews on the Web.


    APA Citation Style Guide
    Developed by the American Psychological Association, this style is widely used in the sciences and social sciences.
    Each citation consists of two parts: the in-text citation, which provides brief identifying information within the text, and the reference list (list of sources used) which provides full bibliographic information.
    How to Format:   In Text Citations | Reference Lists

    How to Format In Text Citations
    (For more detailed information see Publication Manual sec. 3.94-3.103)
    APA Style gives prominence to the date of a publication. In-text citations use the author's last name and the date, separated by a comma, as a brief reference in the text of the article to refer the reader to complete information in the reference list.
    (Austin, 1998)

    If the author's name is mentioned in the narrative, then only the date need be given:
    Austin (1998) compared institutional support

    Two authors. Always use both names every time they are referred to in the text. Use the ampersand (&) to connect the names in the parentheses, but spell out "and" in the running text.
    (Parker & Mokhesi-Parker, 1998)
    Parker and Mokhesi-Parker (1998) in examining institutional design and function ….


    Three to five authors. Cite all the authors in text the first time a reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
    First reference:
    (Parker, Mokhesi-Parker, AuthorC, AuthorD & AuthorE, 1998)
    Subsequent references:
    (Parker et al.)

    Six or more authors. Cite in text only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
    (Parker et al., 1998)

    Group or corporate authors. Use the name of the body in the citation:
    (World Bank, 1998)

    Unknown author. Use the first few words of the title as the reference in the text:
    ("Structuring lawmaking", 2002)

    Author is listed as "Anonymous". Use it as if it were the author's name.
    (Anonymous, 2003)

    When paraphrasing, APA style does not require page numbers in the in-text citation. However, authors are encouraged to include page numbers if it will help the reader locate the relevant information in longer texts. Consult with your professor regarding the need for page numbers for paraphrased information.
    If the reference is to an exact quotation, the author, year and page number must be included. The page number can be given in parentheses at the end of the exact quotation or incorporated into the in-text citation.
    Newman (1994) concluded "sibling conflict is so common that its occurence is taken for granted" (p. 123).
    Such findings have prompted one researcher to conclude, “Sibling conflict is so common that its occurrence is taken for granted” (Newman, 1994, p. 123).

    For exact quotations from sources without page numbers, use paragraph numbers, if available. If the paragraphs are not numbered, but there are headings, use the heading name and count the number of paragraphs after the heading to the paragraph containing the quotation. In some cases page numbers, paragraphs, and headings do not exist. In this case, omit the location of the reference altogether. (Publication Manual, sec. 3.39, p. 120)
    (Smith, 2003, para. 1) or (Smith, 2003, paras. 1, 3)
    (Greene, 2003, Discussion, para. 4)

    For citations taken from secondary sources, include the secondary source in the reference list and mention the original work in the text.
    Text citation:
    Goldman and Goldman's study (as cited in Linebarger, 2001) found ....
    Reference List:
    Linebarger, D. L. (2001). Learning to read from television: The effects of using captions  and 
             narration.
     Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 288-298.

    How to Format Reference Lists
    Books     REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (Publication Manual, sec. 4.16B)
    Single author
    Austin, J. H. (1998). Zen and the brain: Toward an understanding of meditation
          and consciousness.
     Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Multiple authors
    Parker, P., & Mokhesi-Parker, J. (1998). In the shadow of Sharpeville: 
         Apartheid and criminal  justice.
     New York: New York University Press.
    Edited Book
    Ickes, W. (Ed.). (1998). Empathic accuracy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Group or
    corporate author
    World Bank. (1998). SlovakRepublic: A strategy for growth and European 
          integration.
     Washington, D.C.: Author.

    Note: when the author and publisher are the same, use the word "Author" as the publisher.
    Chapter or essay in book
    Herrmann, R. K. (2002). Linking theory to evidence in international relations. In
          W. Carlsnaes,  T. Risse, & B. A. Simmons (Eds.), Handbook of  
          International Relations
     (pp. 119-136). London: SAGE.
    Article from a reference book
    Campbell, H. (2002). Pan-Africanism. In Krieger, J. (Ed.), The Oxford 
           companion to politics of  the world
     (pp. 631-633). Oxford: Oxford University
           Press.

    Note: if there is no author, place the title in the author position.
    Articles     REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (Publication Manual, sec. 4.16A and I)
    Article in a journal (one author)
    Blass, E. M. (1997). Interactions between contact and chemosensory
          mechanisms in pain modulation in 10-day-old rats. Behavioral
          Neuroscience,  111,
     147-154.
    Article in a journal (multiple authors)
    Gagne, P., Tewksbury, R., & McGaughey, D. (1997). Coming out and 
            crossing  over: Identity formation and proclamation in a transgender  
            community. Gender and Society, 11, 478-508.
    Article in a popular magazine
    Henry, W. A., III (1990, April 9) Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.
    Article in a newspaper
    Young, J. (2003, February 14). Prozac campus: more students seek
          counseling and take psychiatric medication. The Chronicle of Higher 
          Education
    , pp.  A37-38.
    Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. The URL should begin on the same line as the rest of the citation information, with a break inserted after a slash, if needed.
    Article from a full-text database
    Hicks, J. E., Jones, J. F. Renner, J. H., & Schmaling, K. (1995). Chronic 
          fatigue syndrome: strategies that work. Patient Care29(10), 55. Retrieved
          March 17, 2002, from InfoTrac  Web Expanded Academic ASAP database.
    Article from an e-journal collection
    Hamilton, C. (1992). A way of seeing: culture as political expression in the 
          works of C.L.R. James. Journal of Black Studies22 (3), 429-443. 
          Retrieved February 26, 2003 from JSTOR database.
    Article from a free web e-journal
    Yu, D. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002, May 8). Preventing Depressive 
          symptoms in Chinese children. Prevention & Treatment5, Article 
          9.Retrieved May 6,   2003, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention
          /volume5/ pre0050009a.html
    Media    REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (Publication Manual, sec. 4.16H)
    Music Score
    No example given in APA Publication Manual for music score.
    Sound Recording
    Writer, A. (Date of Copyright). Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from
          writer]. On Title of album medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc],
          Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date)
    Video Recording
    Bevan, T., Fellner, E., Cavendish, J. (Producers), & Dryburgh, S. (Director). 
          (2001). Bridget Jones's  diary [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax 
          Home Entertainment.
    Television
    Producer, A. (Executive Producer). (Year, date of broadcast). Title of broadcast
          [Television broadcast]. Place: Broadcasting Service.
    Web/Online     REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (Publication Manual, sec. 4.16I)
    Note: Different web browsers break the text in different places of a URL. The URL should begin on the same line as the rest of the citation information, with a break inserted after a slash, if needed.
    Web page
    The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (2002, December 4).
           What the world thinks in 2002. Retrieved February 26, 2003, from 
           http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=165.
    Article from a free web e-journal
    Yu, D. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2002, May 8). Preventing Depressive 
          symptoms  in Chinese children. Prevention & Treatment5, Article 9.
          Retrieved May 6,  2003, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/ 
          pre0050009a.html
    Article from a full-text database
    Hicks, J. E., Jones, J. F. Renner, J. H., & Schmaling, K. (1995). Chronic fatigue
          syndrome:strategies that work. Patient Care29(10), 55. Retrieved March 
          17,  2002, from InfoTrac Web Expanded Academic ASAP database.
    Article from an e-journal collection
    Hamilton, C. (1992). A way of seeing: culture as political expression in the works 
          of C.L.R.James. Journal of Black Studies22 (3), 429-443. Retrieved   
          February 26, 2003 from JSTOR database.
    Government Information   REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.

    (Publication Manual, sec. 4.16C and Appendix D)
    See Citing Government Documents
    [automated fill-in form from Arizona State University Library]
    Unpublished    REMINDER: Citations are double-spaced within them [with a "hanging indent"] and between them, but we single-spaced in this guide for brevity's sake.
    (Publication Manual 3.102 and 4.16F)
    Interview
    In APA Style, personal communications are not considered verifiable or recoverable; they should be cited in the text only and not include in the reference list.